Article

Effects of Ethanol (E85) versus Gasoline Vehicles on Cancer and Mortality in the United States

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4020
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2007, 41 (11), pp 4150–4157
DOI: 10.1021/es062085v
Publication Date (Web): April 18, 2007
Copyright © 2007 American Chemical Society

Abstract

Ethanol use in vehicle fuel is increasing worldwide, but the potential cancer risk and ozone-related health consequences of a large-scale conversion from gasoline to ethanol have not been examined. Here, a nested global-through-urban air pollution/weather forecast model is combined with high-resolution future emission inventories, population data, and health effects data to examine the effect of converting from gasoline to E85 on cancer, mortality, and hospitalization in the United States as a whole and Los Angeles in particular. Under the base-case emission scenario derived, which accounted for projected improvements in gasoline and E85 vehicle emission controls, it was found that E85 (85% ethanol fuel, 15% gasoline) may increase ozone-related mortality, hospitalization, and asthma by about 9% in Los Angeles and 4% in the United States as a whole relative to 100% gasoline. Ozone increases in Los Angeles and the northeast were partially offset by decreases in the southeast. E85 also increased peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the U.S. but was estimated to cause little change in cancer risk. Due to its ozone effects, future E85 may be a greater overall public health risk than gasoline. However, because of the uncertainty in future emission regulations, it can be concluded with confidence only that E85 is unlikely to improve air quality over future gasoline vehicles. Unburned ethanol emissions from E85 may result in a global-scale source of acetaldehyde larger than that of direct emissions.

Find Your Institution

Login with ACS ID

ACS members enjoy benefits including 50 free articles a year and reduced priced individual subscription. Learn More

ACOnet Identity Federation (Austria)
  • Institute of Science and Technology Austria
  • Johannes Kepler University Linz
  • University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Chinese - CSTCloud ID (CAoS)
  • CSTCloud ID (CAS)
German Higher Education (DFN-AAI)
  • Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
  • Bielefeld University
  • Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
  • Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH)
  • Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf
  • Hochschule Aschaffenburg - University of Applied Sciences
  • Hochschule Darmstadt
  • Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt
  • Hochschule Harz (FH)
  • Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe
  • Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Umwelt Nürtingen-Geislingen
  • Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
  • Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
  • Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg
  • Philipps-University Marburg
  • SLUB Dresden
  • San-Netz.de
  • Technical University of Munich (TUM)
  • Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg
  • Technische Universität Dortmund
  • UNIVERSITY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE HANNOVER, FOUNDATION
  • University of Applied Sciences Karlsruhe
  • University of Education Karlsruhe
  • University of Leipzig
  • University of Paderborn
  • Universität Greifswald
India: INFLIBNET Access Management Federation (INFED)
  • Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu
  • Avinashilingam University, Tamil Nadu
  • Bharathidasan University
  • Central University of Punjab
  • Central University of Tamilnadu
  • IIT Guwahati
  • INFLIBNET Staff [Parichay Identity Service]
  • Madurai Kamaraj University
  • Vidyasagar University
Ireland - Edugate Federation
  • Athlone Institute of Technology
  • Institute of Technology Tallaght
  • University of Limerick
Italy - IDEM GARR
  • Ca' Foscari University of Venice
  • Cagliari State University
  • Politecnico di Bari
  • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
  • University of Bologna
  • University of Camerino
  • University of Genoa
  • University of Messina
  • University of Naples Federico II
  • University of Padova
  • University of Palermo
  • University of Parma
  • University of Pavia
  • University of Perugia
  • University of Pisa
  • University of Roma TRE
  • University of Rome Tor Vergata
  • University of Siena
  • University of Verona
OpenAthens Federation
  • Agilent Technologies Inc
  • Agnes Scott College
  • Air Force Civil Engineer Center - Technical Information Center
  • Ajman University
  • AkzoNobel
  • Aligarh Muslim University
  • Anonymous Petcare
  • Aston University
  • Azusa Pacific (APU) & Los Angeles Pacific (LAPU) University
  • BP International
  • BRAC University
  • Bar-Ilan University
  • Baylor Scott & White
  • Birkbeck College
  • Bridgend College
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb
  • Calico Life Sciences LLC
  • Celgene
  • Columbus State University
  • Coventry University
  • Defence Science and Technology Group
  • Delaware Valley University
  • Deutsches Zentrum fur Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen
  • Eduserv Athens
  • Faulkner University
  • Ferring Pharmaceuticals
  • Food and Environment Research Agency
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Gilead Sciences, Inc
  • Glasgow Kelvin College
  • Hogskolan i Gavle
  • Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram
  • Inova Health System
  • James Madison University
  • Jamia Millia Islamia University
  • Kutztown University
  • LEO Pharma A/S
  • LSU Health Sciences Center Library
  • La Roche College
  • LaGrange College
  • Lipscomb University
  • Liverpool John Moores University
  • London South East Colleges (LSEC)
  • Macalester College
  • Mercer University Library
  • Millersville University
  • Ministry of Education (MOE) HQ Library
  • Mississippi State University
  • Monsanto
  • Naval Surface Warfare Center
  • Naval Warfare Center Research Commons
  • Nutricia
  • ORT Braude College
  • Park University
  • Philips
  • Prairie State College
  • Provadis School of International Management and Technology AG
  • Punjab Technical University
  • Rothamsted Research
  • Royal DSM N.V.
  • Savannah State University
  • Seattle Genetics, Inc.
  • Seton Hall Universtiy
  • Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT)
  • Solvay
  • South College Library
  • Southwest Baptist University
  • Southwestern University
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries LTD
  • Texas Medical Center Library
  • The Centre For Environment and Aquaculture Science (Cefas)
  • The Sixth Form College, Farnborough
  • Universidad Nacional De Tres De Febrero
  • Universidade Federal Do Parana
  • Universiti Sains Malaysia -Perpustakaan Hamzah Sendut
  • Universiti Teknologi Petronas
  • University of Chester
  • University of East Anglia (UEA)
  • University of Hertfordshire
  • University of Huddersfield Library
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Leicester
  • University of Lincoln
  • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
  • University of San Francisco
  • University of Ulster
  • University of the Cumberlands
  • Verily Life Sciences
  • Victorian Government Library Service
  • Visva Bharati University
  • West Chester University
  • West College Scotland
  • Westmont College Library
  • anonymous institute
RCTSaai - Portuguese Federation
  • INL- International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory
  • ISCTE - Instituto Universitario de Lisboa
  • Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
  • Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco
  • Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
  • Instituto Politécnico de Tomar
  • Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo
  • Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia
  • Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil
  • Polytechnic Institute of Beja
  • Polytechnic Institute of Cavado and Ave
  • Polytechnic Institute of Leiria
  • Polytechnic Institute of Porto
  • Polytechnic Institute of Santarém
  • Polytechnic Institute of Setubal
  • ULisboa - Campus UL
  • UNL - Rectory
  • Universidade Aberta
  • Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
  • Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  • Universidade Portucalense Infante D. Henrique
  • Universidade da Madeira
  • Universidade dos Açores
  • Universidades Lusiada - Lisboa
  • University Fernando Pessoa
  • University of Algarve
  • University of Aveiro
  • University of Beira Interior
  • University of Coimbra
  • University of Minho
  • University of Porto
  • University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro
  • University of Évora
Slovenia - ArnesAAI Slovenska izobraževalno raziskovalna federacija
  • Inštitut Jožef Stefan (IJS)
  • National Institute of Chemistry Slovenia
  • University of Ljubljana
  • Univerza v Mariboru
  • Univerza v Novi Gorici
Spain: Instituciones académicas (RedIRIS: SIR)
  • Universidade da Coruña
  • Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
  • Universidade de Vigo
  • Universitat Politècnica de València
Swiss Higher Education (SWITCHaai)
  • ETHZ - ETH Zurich
  • Eawag
  • SUPSI - Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana
  • University of Fribourg
  • Universität Basel
  • Universität Bern
  • Université de Genève
  • Université de Neuchâtel
  • ZHAW - Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften
UK Higher Education
  • Abertay University
  • Aberystwyth University
  • Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu
  • Anglia Ruskin University
  • Argonne National Laboratory
  • Aston University OpenAthens
  • Athlone Institute of Technology
  • Avinashilingam University, Tamil Nadu
  • Bangor University
  • Bharathidasan University
  • Bielefeld University
  • Birkbeck College
  • Blackpool and The Fylde College
  • Bournemouth University
  • Bridgend College
  • Brno University of Technology
  • Brunel University
  • Burnley College
  • Ca' Foscari University of Venice
  • Cagliari State University
  • Cardiff University
  • Case Western Reserve University
  • Central University of Punjab
  • Central University of Tamilnadu
  • City of Westminster College
  • College of William and Mary
  • Coventry University
  • Cranfield University
  • De Montfort University
  • ETHZ - ETH Zurich
  • Edinburgh Napier University (PingFederate)
  • European Molecular Biology Laboratory - EMBL-EBI
  • Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
  • Glasgow Caledonian University
  • Glasgow Kelvin College
  • Glasgow School of Art (MyGSA)
  • Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH)
  • Harper Adams University
  • Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf
  • Heriot-Watt University
  • Hochschule Aschaffenburg - University of Applied Sciences
  • Hochschule Darmstadt
  • Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt
  • IIT Guwahati
  • INFLIBNET Staff [Parichay Identity Service]
  • ISCTE - Instituto Universitario de Lisboa
  • Imperial College London
  • Institute of Science and Technology Austria
  • Institute of Technology Tallaght
  • Inštitut Jožef Stefan (IJS)
  • Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
  • Johannes Kepler University Linz
  • Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
  • Keele University
  • King's College London
  • Kingston University London
  • Kirklees College
  • Lancaster University
  • Leeds City College
  • Liverpool John Moores University
  • Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
  • London South East Colleges (LSEC)
  • Macalester College
  • Macclesfield College
  • Madurai Kamaraj University
  • Manchester Metropolitan University
  • Marine Biological Association of the UK
  • McGill University
  • National Institute of Chemistry Slovenia
  • Newcastle University
  • Northern Illinois University
  • Northumbria University
  • Norwich Bioscience Institutes
  • Nottingham Trent University
  • Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg
  • Oxford Brookes University
  • Philipps-University Marburg
  • Plumpton College Shibboleth
  • Plymouth University
  • Politecnico di Bari
  • Polytechnique Montréal
  • Princeton University
  • Purdue University Main Campus
  • Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh
  • Queen Mary, University of London
  • Queen's University Belfast
  • Robert Gordon University
  • Rockefeller University
  • Rothamsted Research
  • Royal Conservatoire of Scotland
  • Royal Holloway, University of London
  • SLUB Dresden
  • SRUC
  • SUPSI - Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana
  • San-Netz.de
  • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
  • South Thames College
  • Swansea University
  • Technical University of Munich (TUM)
  • Technische Universität Dortmund
  • Teesside University
  • The Sixth Form College Farnborough
  • UCL (University College London)
  • UDC - Universidade da Coruña
  • UPV - Universitat Politècnica de València
  • UVIGO - Universidade de Vigo
  • Ulster University
  • Universidade Aberta
  • Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
  • University of Aberdeen
  • University of Algarve
  • University of Applied Sciences Karlsruhe
  • University of Bath
  • University of Bedfordshire
  • University of Beira Interior
  • University of Birmingham
  • University of Bologna
  • University of Bolton - Legacy - Do not use
  • University of Bradford
  • University of Brighton
  • University of Bristol
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Camerino
  • University of Central Florida
  • University of Central Lancashire
  • University of Chester
  • University of Cumbria
  • University of Dundee
  • University of Durham
  • University of East Anglia (UEA)
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Fribourg
  • University of Genoa
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of Greenwich
  • University of Hertfordshire
  • University of Huddersfield - Athens
  • University of Hull
  • University of Kent
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Leicester
  • University of Leipzig
  • University of Limerick
  • University of Lincoln
  • University of Liverpool
  • University of Ljubljana
  • University of Manchester
  • University of Messina
  • University of Minho
  • University of Naples Federico II
  • University of Nottingham
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Padova
  • University of Palermo
  • University of Parma
  • University of Pavia
  • University of Perugia
  • University of Pisa
  • University of Portsmouth
  • University of Reading
  • University of Roma TRE
  • University of Rome Tor Vergata
  • University of Salford (Network Username)
  • University of Siena
  • University of South Wales
  • University of Southampton
  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Stirling
  • University of Strathclyde
  • University of Sunderland
  • University of Surrey
  • University of Sussex
  • University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro
  • University of Verona
  • University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
  • University of Warwick
  • University of West London
  • University of Westminster
  • University of Wolverhampton
  • University of York
  • University of the West of Scotland (UWS)
  • University of Évora
  • Universität Basel
  • Universität Bern
  • Universität Greifswald
  • Université de Genève
  • Université de Neuchâtel
  • Univerza v Mariboru
  • Univerza v Novi Gorici
  • Vidyasagar University
  • Wellcome Trust
  • West Chester University of Pennsylvania
  • West College Scotland
  • Williams College
  • Wiltshire College
  • ZHAW - Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften
US Higher Education (InCommon)
  • Abertay University
  • Aberystwyth University
  • Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu
  • Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
  • Anglia Ruskin University
  • Argonne National Laboratory
  • Aston University OpenAthens
  • Athlone Institute of Technology
  • Avinashilingam University, Tamil Nadu
  • Bangor University
  • Bharathidasan University
  • Bielefeld University
  • Birkbeck College
  • Blackpool and The Fylde College
  • Bournemouth University
  • Bridgend College
  • Brno University of Technology
  • Brunel University
  • Burnley College
  • Ca' Foscari University of Venice
  • Cagliari State University
  • Cardiff University
  • Case Western Reserve University
  • Central University of Punjab
  • Central University of Tamilnadu
  • City of Westminster College
  • College of William and Mary
  • Coventry University
  • Cranfield University
  • De Montfort University
  • ETHZ - ETH Zurich
  • Edinburgh Napier University (PingFederate)
  • European Molecular Biology Laboratory - EMBL-EBI
  • Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
  • Glasgow Caledonian University
  • Glasgow Kelvin College
  • Glasgow School of Art (MyGSA)
  • Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH)
  • Harper Adams University
  • Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf
  • Heriot-Watt University
  • Hochschule Aschaffenburg - University of Applied Sciences
  • Hochschule Darmstadt
  • Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt
  • IIT Guwahati
  • INFLIBNET Staff [Parichay Identity Service]
  • ISCTE - Instituto Universitario de Lisboa
  • Imperial College London
  • Institute of Science and Technology Austria
  • Institute of Technology Tallaght
  • Inštitut Jožef Stefan (IJS)
  • Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
  • Johannes Kepler University Linz
  • Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
  • Keele University
  • King's College London
  • Kingston University London
  • Kirklees College
  • Lancaster University
  • Leeds City College
  • Liverpool John Moores University
  • Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
  • London South East Colleges (LSEC)
  • Macalester College
  • Macclesfield College
  • Madurai Kamaraj University
  • Manchester Metropolitan University
  • Marine Biological Association of the UK
  • McGill University
  • National Institute of Chemistry Slovenia
  • Newcastle University
  • Northern Illinois University
  • Northumbria University
  • Norwich Bioscience Institutes
  • Nottingham Trent University
  • Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg
  • Oxford Brookes University
  • Philipps-University Marburg
  • Plumpton College Shibboleth
  • Plymouth University
  • Politecnico di Bari
  • Polytechnique Montréal
  • Princeton University
  • Purdue University Main Campus
  • Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh
  • Queen Mary, University of London
  • Queen's University Belfast
  • Robert Gordon University
  • Rockefeller University
  • Rothamsted Research
  • Royal Conservatoire of Scotland
  • Royal Holloway, University of London
  • SLUB Dresden
  • SRUC
  • SUPSI - Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana
  • San-Netz.de
  • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
  • South Thames College
  • Swansea University
  • Technical University of Munich (TUM)
  • Technische Universität Dortmund
  • Teesside University
  • The Sixth Form College Farnborough
  • UCL (University College London)
  • UDC - Universidade da Coruña
  • UPV - Universitat Politècnica de València
  • UVIGO - Universidade de Vigo
  • Ulster University
  • Universidade Aberta
  • Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
  • University of Aberdeen
  • University of Algarve
  • University of Applied Sciences Karlsruhe
  • University of Bath
  • University of Bedfordshire
  • University of Beira Interior
  • University of Birmingham
  • University of Bologna
  • University of Bolton - Legacy - Do not use
  • University of Bradford
  • University of Brighton
  • University of Bristol
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Camerino
  • University of Central Florida
  • University of Central Lancashire
  • University of Chester
  • University of Cumbria
  • University of Dundee
  • University of Durham
  • University of East Anglia (UEA)
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Fribourg
  • University of Genoa
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of Greenwich
  • University of Hertfordshire
  • University of Huddersfield - Athens
  • University of Hull
  • University of Kent
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Leicester
  • University of Leipzig
  • University of Limerick
  • University of Lincoln
  • University of Liverpool
  • University of Ljubljana
  • University of Manchester
  • University of Messina
  • University of Minho
  • University of Naples Federico II
  • University of Nottingham
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Padova
  • University of Palermo
  • University of Parma
  • University of Pavia
  • University of Perugia
  • University of Pisa
  • University of Portsmouth
  • University of Reading
  • University of Roma TRE
  • University of Rome Tor Vergata
  • University of Salford (Network Username)
  • University of Siena
  • University of South Wales
  • University of Southampton
  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Stirling
  • University of Strathclyde
  • University of Sunderland
  • University of Surrey
  • University of Sussex
  • University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro
  • University of Verona
  • University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
  • University of Warwick
  • University of West London
  • University of Westminster
  • University of Wolverhampton
  • University of York
  • University of the West of Scotland (UWS)
  • University of Évora
  • Universität Basel
  • Universität Bern
  • Universität Greifswald
  • Université de Genève
  • Université de Neuchâtel
  • Univerza v Mariboru
  • Univerza v Novi Gorici
  • Vidyasagar University
  • Wellcome Trust
  • West Chester University of Pennsylvania
  • West College Scotland
  • Williams College
  • Wiltshire College
  • ZHAW - Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften
Others
  • BASF SE
  • Feide - Norwegian educational institutions (test-IdP)
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Explore by:

Metrics

Article Views: 2,812 Times
Received 31 August 2006
Date accepted 14 March 2007
Published online 18 April 2007
Published in print 1 June 2007
+
Altmetric Logo Icon More Article Metrics

This website uses cookies to improve your user experience. By continuing to use the site, you are accepting our use of cookies. Read the ACS privacy policy.

CONTINUE